Saturday, August 18, 2012

American and Italian Universities

Summer in Italy is not just sun and sea, pasta and pizza, there is culture too, music for all tastes but also quite serious discussions. This was one of those summer initiatives that Italy is so good at; a beautiful setting, a balmy temperature and a good roundtable debate sandwiched between a good meal and divine almond and then blackberry granite or granulated water ice.

For the last three years, the Reggio based online paper,, has organised “Tabularasa” a month long series of encounters and debates on a wide variety of subjects. Local and visiting speakers sit on a stage overlooking the Straits of Messina with a public seeking the evening cool and perhaps some enlightenment.

On my evening, we considered the merits and faults of the Italian and American university systems. The panel was made up of Salvatore Berlingò, a Roman lawyer and rector of Reggio’s University for Foreigners, Francesco Russo, an engineer from the University of Reggio Calabria, Susana Cavallo, from Loyola University’s Rome Campus, Massimiliano Ferrara, political scientist and functionary from the Calabrian regional government and Phil Pullella, Reuters’ Vatican correspondent. The discussion was chaired by the two editors of, Raffaele Mortelliti and Giusva Branca. Some of us had experience in both systems, some only in one.

The two most important questions at the basis of any discussion on this topic have to be – what are universities for? And how should they be financed?

Italy is unclear on both questions. There is a presumption that universities are primarily research institutions and that faculty should above all be judged on their production. And yet successive governments have consistently reduced funding for research. There is also a lack of consensus on how faculty should be rated and two of the panel had a heated discussion on that point – today there are new criteria, more or less international, which are being used to grade academics but Italy is still a long way from adopting the UK quality assessment methods or the US outcomes assessment. Particularly in the humanities, there are many Italians who feel that supposedly “Anglo-Saxon” criteria of peer review and citations in scientific journals miss the point. Maybe, but they do not come up with more convincing metres. This was the division between the Roman lawyer and the engineer on our panel.

On the cost side, there is even less consensus. Italian students are beginning to pay real money especially when they also have to pay for bed and board away from home, though the costs are still tiny compared to the US or even the US, they are much higher than in Scandinavia, say.

Student loan debt in the US is apparently now greater than mortgage debt for houses. UK student enrollment is down because of rising costs. The prospect of starting one’s working life seriously in debt is already discouraging British students from going to university.

For all the disadvantages of costly education, the cash nexus does mean that students are much more central to universities’ raison d’être. The buzzword for decades has been “student-centered learning” in the US. In the American system, we have to concentrate on what we expect students to have learned or be able to do after a class, a course or a degree. Not what we are teaching. The substance is almost identical but the focus is reversed. Whereas in the Italian system, I am very conscious of colleagues concentrating on their own skills and erudition rather than what the skills or knowledge that the students should acquire.

The US is far more responsive to the market – not just for jobs or for who will set up an endowment fund but also to social demands. The pressures are more varied than in Italy: students, social demands, commercial and industrial demands, city, state and sometimes federal government demands. Pluralism in education, as in government contributes to democracy. In Italy, the pressure is limited to the universities and the ministry with occasional outbursts from students when the situation is already terrible. Today there is an increasing input from the private sector but it is still a long way from the American model.

The American system is more democratic in the pressures that move university policy but is seriously flawed in internal university governance which in the majority of cases is structured more like a heirarchical business corporation than the traditional European model of an universitas studiorum where responsibility lies with faculty rather than boards of directors formed by outsider appointed officials. This model is unfortunately taking over in many parts of Europe too. Even in Italy where the system went too far in the other direction with university barons running a feudal power system, today there are administrative boards made up of local businessmen and politicians who are beginning to dictate policy as well as managing teaching content, research and even employment .

Another difference that many Italians, even those who work in universities, forget about is the huge difference in quality within the US system. Italians often presume that all American universities are Ivy League schools. There is an abyss between them and a backwoods community college, or worse, some radical religious foundations or for-profit institutions, whereas Italian state universities and even and private or religious institutions show less difference.

A point which we all made is that American higher education is mostly residential so that students are able to take advantage of much more than lectures in classrooms; sport, culture and above all student social life in which in its best version, students from different social and ethnic backgrounds studying different disciplines exchange ideas and form lasting friendships.

Most importantly, the American universities are based primarily on merit which the Italian ones mostly are not; we also discussed legality in the systems. A colleague here at the American University of Rome, Francesca Conti has studied Italians who leave the country to work in Britain; a recurrant theme is the difficulty of being judged on merit in Italy. In an article to be published in the Bulletin of Italian Politics, she quotes a graduate from the south of Italy who had moved to Britain and who speaks for many of her respondants:

The United Kingdom has offered me things which I would have never had in Italy. What I adore about this country is that they judge you for what you can do; there may be internal games but, in my case, I think that I would have never managed to get to the same position in Italy.

As if to underline this point and the one we addressed at Tabularasa explain, the day after the discussion, one of the local papers had an article about the 26 year old son of a local boss providing help to pass university entrance exams. He had shown his own mettle by passing 9 exams in 41 days. It shows how the Calabrian mafia, the ndrangheta adapts to modern needs and loses no opportunity for power and profit; it also makes my point that merit is secondary quality, far less important than loyalty and having the right friends.

The bane of the Italian system is the raccomandazione.


italpolblog said...

I received a long a thoughtful reply (and correction), from Leila Gonzalez Sullivan, a retired president of 3 Community Colleges as well as American University of Rome board member who now devotes most of her time to training emerging CC leaders. 

"Thanks for the informative blog on comparative higher education as viewed during the Tabularasa event.  Wish I could have heard some of the discussion; it might be an interesting topic for the faculty session when the board visits in October.
 I do have to correct two apparent misperceptions in those discussions from the perspective of my many years in the field of community college education.  First, I'm not sure what you meant by "backwoods community college" but I want to assure you that the faculty with whom I have worked over my career are excellent teachers as well as scholars.  They have contributed a great deal to our understanding of adult learning and many have published important pieces of research and theory in their fields.  Of course, they are not at the level of their colleagues in the Ivy Leagues, but I would match innumerable community college faculty against those in state universities--and even AUR-- when we hold the particular curriculum constant.  It is true that some of these colleges are located in rural, or "backwoods." areas primarily so they can extend the opportunity for higher education to people in those remote locations.  The location of these colleges does not imply lower academic quality.
Second, most students over here do not attend residential institutions.  The reality is that over half of all undergraduates start their college educations at a community college and most of those institutions do not provide residential fa, cilities, although some do.  In this field, our intention is to ensure that there are community colleges within roughly 45 minutes of any citizen so the need for dorms is minimal.
Finally, the mission of community colleges is varied: to provide higher education for career purposes, to provide the first two years in preparation for transfer, to offer non-credit courses for career prep, continuing education and/or enrichment.  We prepare the majority of American workers in the health fields and in areas such as criminal justice and fire science.  And, more and more, community college graduates are making major contributions in biotechnology fields.
I hope as you continue to dialogue with your colleagues at Tabularasa and elsewhere, you will give community colleges strong emphasis and convey what they are truly about.  Many countries are looking at this model as a means to prepare people for tehcnical-type work that needs some higher education, but not a baccalaureate degree.
When you next travel to the States, let me know and we'll visit a couple of these colleges.  You'll be impressed!"

italpolblog said...

And an English friend gave a different explanation of at least some of the Italian presence in British universities:

"I am especially fascinated by this one: did you know that there are at least half-a-dozen Italians teaching history in British universities. This is as much a result of the increasing unwillingness of Brits to learn foreign languages as the desire of young Italians to escape academic clientelism and corruption: it is not entirely different for the history of some other other European countries. In his inaugural lecture as Regius Professor of History at Cambridge, Professor (Sir!) Richard Evans predicted that within a generation there will be virtually no native British historians of European history...

You talk about Italian views of Anglo-Saxon systems of peer assessment and you will remember the invitation I received to contribute to a sort of Italian 'Research Assessment Exercise', which I refused because it was all so last minute. Now I have been invited to submit an application to become a foreign member of a commission to select new Italian assistant professors, a sort of equivalent of the German Abilitation system. I submitted the application, but I'm not sure I'll accept if they offer me a place..."

He added some quotes from the Evans lecture:

"here are some pertinent quotes from Evan's inaugural, 'Cosmopolitan
Islanders': 1. 'Christopher Duggan has noted that " the absence of jobs for young historians in Italy has meant a steady influx from Italy of PhD students of the highest quality; and the teaching of Italian history in UK universities in the future may depend largely on them."' p. 204

2. '...surveying the applications from historians for the coveted Junior Research Fellowships offered jointly by Churchill, Fitzwilliam, Murray-Edwards and Trinity Hall colleges in Cambridge University, for
October 2009, John Pollard notes that 38 out of 112 were in European History and; 23 of these latter were from non-British applicants.' p.205

3. 'Patick Major... concludes that British academia's very openess to outside influences..., which I generally applaud, is in danger of leading to a division of labour in British universities in which British historians give up on catering for foreign history. Instead we will simply import the
historians.' p. 205

italpolblog said...

I had this comment from Gloria Chen:

"I find your piece on the panel discussion on American and Italian universities very interesting, and I’ve been reading Professor Conti’s journal article which you recommend.

BTW, you seem to be saying that many universities in Italy are not residential. As far as I can tell from what I’ve learned from a Serbian language textbook which I’ve been reading, most universities of some Balkan countries (like Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia) are not residential, where only students whose families are out of town can live on campus while local students walk daily to ‘fakultet’ (i.e. a school or an institute of a university), and not all ‘fakulteti’ are located in a centralised large campus. So I wonder if this is the case in Italy as well?"

to which I replied:

As a very broad generalisation, most universities on the European continent are not residential (or not primarily residential) while most UK ones are and a good number of US ones too (but I’ve already been corrected by some American readers who remind me that a good number of US universities are not residential).
You are certainly right that most students in the Balkans are local.
In Italy a smallish proportion of students are out of town but even then, there is very little collective university life even for those who live in residences/dorms. That was the point that some of the panel made. The only real exception is the Scuola Normale in Pisa, based very much on the French Écoles Normales.

and she commented:

Thank you for the explanation! Well here in China, most universities have their own students’ residential areas located within or near campus, and even local students will naturally opt to live on campus. But again it’s true that many Chinese universities today enroll quite a number of out-of-town students. In some top universities, nearly 50 percent of freshmen are not local.

italpolblog said...

and one more comment/correction:

"Hi James, interesting column. But this line jumped out at me.
Student loan debt in the US is apparently now greater than mortgage debt for houses.
I believe student debt is higher than credit card debt, but not mortgage debt."
He is right:

20% of US families have to deal with student debt up from 15% in 2007